This short course is designed to provide individuals with an advanced knowledge needed to design and analyse drilling hydraulics. The course will cover theory, hands-on exercises and a mini project on real-life example. It is intended for individuals with prior knowledge in drilling fluids.
Duration: 5 days
At the end of the course, participants will be able to:
- Describe the rheological models generally used to approximate drilling fluid behaviour.
- Analyze the total system frictional pressure losses, surge/swab pressures and ECD in a wellbore using different flow regimes and fluid rheological models.
- Design a hydraulic programme for optimizing pump operating condition and bit nozzle sizes.
- Evaluate various particle slip velocity models, cuttings transport mechanisms, and hole cleaning models for efficient hole cleaning and ECD management.
Flow Regimes and Fluid Rheology: (1 day)
- Characteristics of pipe flow
- Types of flow regimes, Flow entrance region and entry length for laminar & turbulent flows
- Types of fluids
- Reynolds number as a function of fluid types
- Description of fluid rheology, Rheological models
- Shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids
- Temperature and pressure effects on fluid rheology
- Rheological properties measuring methods
Pressure Losses in Pipe-Annulus/Bit Pressure Drop/ Surge & Swab Pressures: (2 days)
- Factors influencing pressure loss
- Estimating system pressure losses
- Pressure loss as a function of fluid type and flow regime
- EMW & ECD for vertical and deviated wells
- Nozzle velocity and bit pressure drop
- Equivalent bit nozzle size, Hydraulic horse power
- Practical applications
- Fundamental principles of surge and swab pressures,
- Annular velocity for open-ended and closed-ended pipes
- Annular pressure loss for Newtonian fluid in terms of effective velocity
- Clinging constant equations & charts for non-Newtonian fluids
Hydraulics Optimization Criteria: (1 day)
- Types of hydraulic optimization criteria
- Maximum hydraulic requirement to clean the hole for various criteria
- Factors affecting the choice of hydraulic optimization criterion
- Graphical method for selecting bit nozzle sizes
Evaluation of Hole Cleaning Performance: (1 day)
- Particle slip velocity estimation using the Moore and Chien correlation
- Factors affecting hole cleaning efficiency
- Cuttings transport mechanisms in vertical, inclined & horizontal wellbores
- Effect of drillpipe rotation on cuttings transport
- The PHAR factor concept in selecting drillpipe rotation speed
- Transport ratio and hole cleaning models: using charts and correlations